What is anti-e antigen?
Anti-e is an antibody directed against the e antigen in the Rh blood group system. Anti-e is implicated in Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions and Hemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn. Patients with Anti-e must receive e- blood. The e antigen is a high incidence antigen. Approximately 2% of donors will be compatible.
How common is an e antigen in blood?
The occurrence of the E antigen is 29% in Caucasians, 22% in Blacks, and 39% in Asians. Anti-E can cause mild hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. The occurrence of the e antigen is 98% in Caucasians and Blacks and 96% in Asians. Anti-e can cause rare, usually mild hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.
What does anti-E mean in pregnancy?
Antibodies with anti-E specificity are detected in 14–20% of pregnant women and it is one of the most common non-D Rhesus (Rh) antibody in the pathogenesis of neonatal hemolytic disease [1, 2]. However, anti-E is rarely associated with severe hemolytic anemia in the fetus [3, 4].
Is Anti-e clinically significant?
CLINICAL: Anti-E is a fairly common immune antibody that may cause hemolytic transfusion reactions or may be a rare cause of HDN. Transfusion should be made with E-negative blood.
What causes anti-E in pregnancy?
The anti-RhE antibody can be naturally occurring, or arise following immune sensitization after a blood transfusion or pregnancy. The anti-RhE antibody is quite common especially in the Rh genotype CDe/CDe; it usually only causes a mild hemolytic disease, but can cause a severe condition in the newborn.
Can anti-e be IgM?
Anti-E is more likely to be IgM than other Rh antibodies. Anti-D is often seen as a mainly IgM antibody in a 1° immune response. Rarely, some Rh antibodies such as anti-e may occur as IgA antibodies.
What does it mean to be HBeAg positive?
The hepatitis e antigen, or HBeAg, is a marker of an actively replicating HBV virus infection. Those with a positive HBeAg have active replication in their liver cells, more of the virus circulating in their blood, and as a result, they are more infectious, with a higher likelihood of transmitting HBV to others.
What causes anti-E antibody in pregnancy?
How does anti-e affect pregnancy?
Anti-E isoimmunization can cause significant fetal and newborn hemolytic disease requiring prenatal intervention. Based on our population, antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:32 in the absence of a prior affected pregnancy warrant further evaluation.
Do anti-E antibodies go away?
When an antibody is found: These antibodies will not go away but often cause no problems.
What happens if you have antibodies during pregnancy?
How can Rh antibodies affect a fetus? During a pregnancy, Rh antibodies made in a woman’s body can cross the placenta and attack the Rh factor on fetal blood cells. This can cause a serious type of anemia in the fetus in which red blood cells are destroyed faster than the body can replace them.
Is Rh IgG or IgM?
Blood Cell Antigens and Antibodies Immune Rh antibodies are predominantly IgG (IgG1 and/or IgG3), but may have an IgM component. They react optimally at 37 °C, they do not bind complement and their detection is often enhanced by the use of enzyme-treated red cells.
Is anti K IgG or IgM?
Examples of anti-K are usually produced in response to immunization by transfusion or pregnancy. They are usually IgG in nature and react primarily by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT), but saline reactive/IgM examples have also been reported.
How is HDN treated?
During pregnancy, treatment for HDN may include: Intrauterine blood transfusion of red blood cells into the baby’s circulation. This is done by placing a needle through the mother’s uterus and into the abdominal cavity of the fetus or directly into the vein in the umbilical cord.
What does E stands for in HBeAg?
Seropositivity for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), a surrogate marker of active viral replication, has been shown to be a significant risk factor for the development of cirrhosis and HCC [4–7].
Why is HBeAg test done?
A positive test for the hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAG) means that there is an active infection with the hepatitis B virus, likely in someone with chronic hepatitis B. The virus is actively multiplying.
Does anti-e Cross placenta?
The maternal IgG antibodies produced will pass through the placenta and attack fetal red cells carrying the corresponding antigen. Allo-immune hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn caused by anti-E rarely occurs.
How is anti-E treated?
Currently, intravenous immunoglobulin has been used as alternative treatment for HDN to reduce the need for exchange transfusion, as well as the length of phototherapy and hospitalisation. We report a case of anti-E HDN treated successfully with intravenous immunoglobulin, as adjuvant treatment to phototherapy.