What is quinary blast injury?

What is quinary blast injury?

refer to the clinical consequences of post-detonation environmental contaminants, including chemical (e.g., sarin), biological (e.g., anthrax), and radiological (e.g., dirty bombs) substances.

What kind of injuries are unique to high explosive detonations?

Categories of Blast Injuries Primary blast—unique to high-order explosives; results from the impact of the over-pressurization wave with body surfaces.

What is a tertiary blast injury?

Tertiary blast injury occurs when a person is physically thrown by the blast, which usually causes direct impact trauma. For example, being thrown by the blast might cause the head to strike the ground or a wall.

What are the types of blast injuries?

The four basic mechanisms of blast injury are termed as primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary (Table 1).

Which area of the abdomen is most susceptible to blast injuries?

Gas-containing sections of the GI tract are most vulnerable to primary blast effect. This can cause immediate bowel perforation, hemorrhage (ranging from small petechiae to large hematomas), mesenteric shear injuries, solid organ lacerations, and testicular rupture.

What are crush injuries?

Crush injury — Crush injury is the result of physical trauma from prolonged compression of the torso, limb(s), or other parts of the body. The resultant injury to the soft tissues, muscles, and nerves can be due to the primary direct effect of the trauma or ischemia related to compression.

Which organ is most vulnerable to injury after a bomb blast?

The ear is the most susceptible organ to primary blast injury. Injury to the delicate and sensitive structures of the middle and inner ear represents the most common type of injury after a blast. Blast injury to the ear may result in symptoms of tinnitus, earache, hearing loss, or vertigo.

What is a secondary blast?

Secondary blast injuries are caused by debris that is displaced by the blast wind of the explosion. The secondary blast injuries are caused by debris that penetrates or interacts with the body surface.

What are the phases of a blast?

Abstract. Traumatic brain injury caused by explosive or blast events is traditionally divided into four phases: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury.

What organ is most susceptible to pressure changes during an explosion?

Solid organs such as the middle ear, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract are the most susceptible to pressure changes.

Which body structure is a common delayed finding in blast trauma?

The blast wave causes damage to more extensively to air-filled organs. The resulting barotrauma can affect the lungs, auditory organs, the eye, brain, and gastrointestinal tract. Blast belly – injury causing abdominal hemorrhage and perforation (immediate and delayed).

What are the 3 common signs and symptoms of crush injuries?

Some or all of the following clinical signs and symptoms may be present:

  • Cardiovascular instability. Hypotension and hypovolemic shock.
  • Renal failure.
  • Metabolic acidosis with lactic acidosis.
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy.
  • Hypothermia.
  • Myoglobinuria.
  • Skin injury and swelling.
  • Paralysis and paresthesia.

What is powder factor in blasting?

The POWDER FACTOR is a relationship between how much rock is broken and how much explosive is used to break it. It can serve a variety of purposes, such as an indicator of how hard the rock is, or the cost of the explosives needed, or even as a guide to planning a shot.

What is detonator factor?

A detonator contains an easy-to-ignite primary explosive that provides the initial activation energy to start the detonation in the main charge. Explosives commonly used in detonators include mercury fulminate, lead azide, lead styphnate, tetryl, and DDNP.

Which of the following is the most important predictor of damage sustained from a gunshot wound?

The location of an entrance wound (bullet placement) and the projectile path are the most important factors in causing significant injury or death following a shooting.

What is the most lethal of all nerve agents?

VX is the most potent of all nerve agents. Compared with the nerve agent sarin (also known as GB), VX is considered to be much more toxic by entry through the skin and somewhat more toxic by inhalation. It is possible that any visible VX liquid contact on the skin, unless washed off immediately, would be lethal.

What happens when a person is crushed to death?

When your body is crushed between two objects, muscle cells begin to die almost instantaneously. Three mechanisms within the body cause the cells to die: lysis, ischemia, and vascular compromise. Lysis refers to the immediate disruption of cells that occurs when a part of the body is crushed.