Which cells produce IL-22 in the gut?

Which cells produce IL-22 in the gut?

IL-22 is produced by CD4+ and γδ T cells as well as type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s). IL-22 acts on intestinal epithelial cells inducing fucosylation and the release of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), regulating the microbiota, and maintaining gut barrier homeostasis.

Is IL-22 anti inflammatory?

IL-22 is a pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine that is mainly produced by T cells and NK cells. Recent studies have reported the increased number of IL-22 producing T cells in patients with autoimmune noninfectious uveitis; however, the correlation between IL-22 and uveitis remains unclear.

Is IL-22 a proinflammatory cytokine?

IL-22 has been revealed to act as a pro-tumor cytokine in the cancers associated with gastrointestinal tract. The infiltration of cellular sources of IL-22 including Th22 and CD4+ T cells in the intratumoral tissue increases, corresponding to the stage of tumor (153–155).

Is IL-22 a Th17 cytokine?

We show that IL-22 acted cooperatively with IL-17A or IL-17F to enhance expression of antimicrobial peptides associated with host defense. Our data reveal IL-22 as an effector cytokine of the Th17 lineage.

Do Th17 cells secrete IL 22?

Interestingly, Th17 cells have been described to produce IL-22 in homeostatic conditions and upon C. rodentium infection52.

What produces IL-23?

Interleukin-23 is mainly secreted by activated macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) located in peripheral tissues (skin, intestinal mucosa and lung)2 as a disulphide-linked complex with the polypeptide p19 binding protein p40.

Why is interleukin-2 important?

IL-2 has an immunoregulatory role; it promotes the growth and development of peripheral immune cells in the initiation of the (defensive) immune response, and keeps them alive as effector cells.

What is the role of Th17?

Th17 cells play a role in host defense against extracellular pathogens, particularly at the mucosal and epithelial barriers, but aberrant activation has been linked to the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases [5].

What does Th17 cells secrete?

Th17 cells are proinflammatory cells that secrete IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-22 and provide immunity to several extracellular pathogens including defense against infections from Candida, Citrobacter, and Klebsiella (Happel et al., 2005; Huang et al., 2004; Mangan et al., 2006).

Where is IL-23 found?

IL-23 is found in the skin of patients with psoriasis, in the bowel wall of patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease, and in synovial membrane of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. IL-23 is involved in osteoclastogenesis, independently from IL-17, via induction of RANKL expression.

What is the role IL-23?

IL-23 functions in innate and adaptive immunity, and is a key cytokine for promoting inflammatory responses in a variety of target organs. The most important function ascribed to IL-23 is its role in the development and differentiation of effector Th17 cells via activation of STAT3.

What is the role of IL-22 in the human body?

A role for IL-22 has been described in numerous tissues including gut, liver, lung, skin, thymus, kidney, heart, pancreas and synovial tissue. IL-22R is expressed on epithelial cells and some fibroblasts in those tissues. IL-22 can promote their cellular proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, and wound healing.

What is the pathophysiology of IL-22 deficiency?

IL-22 deficiency alters colonic microbiota to be transmissible and colitogenic. J. Immunol. 2013;190:5306–5312. [PMC free article][PubMed] [Google Scholar] 395. De Luca A. IL-22 defines a novel immune pathway of antifungal resistance.

What type of receptor is the IL 22 receptor?

IL-22 receptor The IL-22 receptor (IL-22R) is a Type 2 cytokine receptor and member of the IL-10 family of receptors along with the receptors for IL-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-24, IL-26, IL-28 and IL-29 (Figure 1). It is composed of two heterodimeric subunits, IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 (2, 3, 11–13).

What is the mechanism of action of interleukin 22 (IL-22) on human keratinocytes?

281. Boniface K. IL-22 inhibits epidermal differentiation and induces proinflammatory gene expression and migration of human keratinocytes. J. Immunol.