Who wrote about El Nino?

Who wrote about El Niño?

Scientists have also found chemical signatures of warmer sea surface temperatures and increased rainfall caused by El Niño in coral specimens that are around 13,000 years old. Around 1525, when Francisco Pizarro made landfall in Peru, he noted rainfall in the deserts, the first written record of the impacts of El Niño.

What is El Niño La Niña phenomenon?

El Niño and La Niña events are natural occurrences in the global climate system resulting from variations in ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific. In turn, changes in the atmosphere impact the ocean temperatures and currents. The system oscillates between warm (El Niño) to neutral or cold (La Niña) conditions.

What is El Niño phenomenon PDF?

El Niño events are large climate disturbances which are originated in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, and occur in every 2 to 8 years. The developed phase of El Niño is characterized by unusual warm waters at the ocean surface, from the coasts of Peru and Ecuador to the center of the equatorial Pacific Ocean.

Who discovered El Niño and La Niña?

Two giants of 20th-century meteorology, Gilbert Walker and Jacob Bjerknes, are usually given credit for discovering the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon.

Who found La Niña?

Sir Gilbert Walker
The other half of the ENSO cycle has been named La Niña, the girl child, or, less commonly, El Viejo, the old man. The Southern Oscillation was detected, and named, in 1923 by Sir Gilbert Walker.

What are common features of El Niño and La Niña?

El Niño and La Niña can both have global impacts on weather, wildfires, ecosystems, and economies. Episodes of El Niño and La Niña typically last nine to 12 months, but can sometimes last for years. El Niño and La Niña events occur every two to seven years, on average, but they don’t occur on a regular schedule.

What is the difference between El Nino and La Nina?

El Niño refers to the above-average sea-surface temperatures that periodically develop across the east-central equatorial Pacific. It represents the warm phase of the ENSO cycle. La Niña refers to the periodic cooling of sea-surface temperatures across the east-central equatorial Pacific.

What is the difference between El Nino and La Nina What are the characteristics of each Where do they originate?

El Niño is characterized by a positive ONI greater than or equal to +0.5°C. La Niña is characterized by a negative ONI less than or equal to -0.5°C. Whenever the ONI is between +0.5 and -0.5, conditions are referred to as ENSO-neutral.

What is the difference between El Niño & La Niña?

What are the effects of El Niño and La Niña?

El Niño and La Niña affect not only ocean temperatures, but also how much it rains on land. Depending on which cycle occurs (and when), this can mean either droughts or flooding. Typically, El Niño and its warm waters are associated with drought, while La Niña is linked to increased flooding.

When was El Niño first discovered?

El Niño means Little Boy, or Christ Child in Spanish. South American fishermen first noticed periods of unusually warm water in the Pacific Ocean in the 1600s. The full name they used was El Niño de Navidad, because El Niño typically peaks around December.

Who is La Niña named after?

The name La Niña originates from Spanish for “the girl”, by analogy to El Niño, meaning “the boy”. In the past, it was also called an anti-El Niño and El Viejo, meaning “the old man”.

Why is it called El Niño?

Fishermen off the west coast of South America were the first to notice appearances of unusually warm water that occurred at year’s end. The phenomenon became known as El Niño because of its tendency to occur around Christmas time. El Niño is Spanish for “the boy child” and is named after the baby Jesus.

Where was the El Niño phenomenon first recognized?

El Niño was recognized by fishers off the coast of Peru as the appearance of unusually warm water. We have no real record of what indigenous Peruvians called the phenomenon, but Spanish immigrants called it El Niño, meaning “the little boy” in Spanish.

What is the main difference between El Nino and La Nina?

What is difference between La Niña and El Niño?

El Niño events are associated with a warming of the central and eastern tropical Pacific, while La Niña events are the reverse, with a sustained cooling of these same areas. These changes in the Pacific Ocean and its overlying atmosphere occur in a cycle known as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

Who discovered El Nino and La Nina?

What are the different effects of El Niño and La Niña?

Why has El Nino and La Nina not been predicted?

EL NINO AND LA NI˜ NA: CAUSES AND GLOBAL CONSEQUENCES˜11 not been predicted because El Nino forecasting capabilities˜ had not yet been developed.

What is the frequency and amplitude of El Nino and La Nino?

The frequency and amplitude of El Nino and La Ni˜ na events˜ are modulated on decadal and longer time scales. The 1930s to the early 1950s, for example, was a period of relatively few El Ninos, while the period since 1976 has witnessed˜ more frequent, stronger, and in the case of 1991–1995, longer lasting El Ninos.

What is La Nina (El Nino)?

La Nina has also been referred˜ to as anti-El Ni˜no, ENSO cold event, and El Viejo (the old man). Like El Nino, La Ni˜ na typically lasts 12–18˜ months.

How does El Nino affect the Pacific Ocean?

El Niño causes the Pacific jet stream to move south and spread further east. During winter, this leads to wetter conditions than usual in the Southern U.S. and warmer and drier conditions in the North. El Niño also has a strong effect on marine life off the Pacific coast.