What is the Gardner Business Index?

What is the Gardner Business Index?

The Gardner Business Index (GBI) -just like the Purchasing Manager Indices compiled around the world- is calculated as a diffusion index. A diffusion index is at its core a weighted average meaning that it behaves differently from the majority of charts used in the business world.

What is Gardner method?

The Gardner Color Scale is a one-dimensional scale used to measure the shade of the color yellow. The Gardner scale and the APHA/Pt-Co/Hazen Color Scale overlap with the Gardner scale measuring higher concentrations of yellow color and the APHA scale measuring very low levels of yellow color.

What is Gardner impact test?

Falling dart impact, also known as Gardner impact, is a traditional method for evaluating the impact strength or toughness of a plastic material.

What is APHA unit?

Science. The scale for APHA color goes from 0 to 500 in units of parts per million of platinum cobalt to water. Zero on this scale represents distilled water, or what is more commonly called white water. APHA standards can be used for both visual comparison and instrumental measurements.

What are the major types of impact tests for plastic?

Of the two basic types of plastics impact testers, pendulum types for Izod, Charpy, and tensile impact measure the energy absorbed by the specimen to cause failure. The other category is falling-weight tests—Gardner falling weight for rigid materials and dart drop for film.

Why is impact testing necessary?

Why impact testing is important? Impact test determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture. This absorbed energy is a measure of a given material’s toughness and acts as a tool to study temperature-dependent brittle-ductile transition.

How do you measure Gardner color?

How can gardner color be measured? A value for gardner color can be obtained accurately and efficiently using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The sample is placed in a cuvette, the measurement is quickly carried out using illuminant C and 2° observer.

What is APHA method?

APHA, AWWA & WEF Test Methods are test procedures specifically for the examination of a wide spectrum of parameters in water and waste water, published in a volume called Standard Methods.

What is difference between Charpy and Izod test?

In the IZOD test, the notch direction faces the striker which is fastened in a pendulum. While, in the Charpy test, the notch direction is positioned away from the striker. The impact testing is done mainly by two types of notches i.e. U-notch & V-notch.

Why Charpy test is required?

Charpy tests show whether a metal can be classified as being either brittle or ductile. This is particularly useful for ferritic steels that show a ductile to brittle transition with decreasing temperature.

How do you measure APHA color?

The color is measured as tristimulus values of the percentage transmittance of light by a sample using deionized water as a blank. Then these tristimulus values are automatically converted to the APHA color scale by the UV/VIS Excellence spectrophotometer using appropriate mathematical equations.

What is APHA value?

What is APHA color scale?

APHA Scale (American Public Health Association) Generally it is described in ASTM D 1209 for the comparison of yellow sample color intensity. The APHA color scale range is from 0 to 500 in ppm (parts per million) platinum cobalt to distilled water, what is the zero point (also called white water).